The kidneys act like the filtration system of the human body. In simple terms they extract all the impurities of the human metabolism and push them out of the body via the urine and urinary system. Hence a simple urine analysis test can give us a lot of important information about the health of a person.
Evaluation of the urine is the most basic test done usually in 2 scenarios:
As a part of a preventive health check up.
As a part of investigations and evaluation of clinical symptoms.
The evaluation of urine includes
Culture and antibiotic sensitivity
However this evaluation need to be done in a standardized and nationally accredited laboratory.
The normal color is pale yellow (pigment urochrome). The color varies because of
Type of food
Abnormal color can be seen in :
Colorless -> Very dilute urine/ over hydration.
Cloudy -> Pyuria (infection)/ Phosphaturia/ Chyluria
Red -> Hematuria (Infection/ Stones/ Trauma)
Normal 1.015- 1.025 :
Reflects the STATE OF HYDRATION :
LOW due to
Abnormal renal function
Excessive fluid intake
Drugs like Diuretics
HIGH due to
Uncontrolled Diabetes mellitus
Can help in diagnosis of UTI. Stone disease.
Ph is ACIDIC in patients with uric acid, cysteine stone.
Hematuria (Blood in urine) : Could be an indicator of :
URINARY INFECTION/ URINARY STONES/ URINARY CANCER/ TRAUMA/ DRUG INDUCED (BLOOD THINNERS)
Proteinuria : Normally 80-150 mg
Can be an indicator of Renovascular/ Glomerular/ Tubulointerstitial medical renal disease/ Multiple myeloma/ Severe exercise.
Glycosuria can be indicator of Diabetes mellitus
Detection of bile salts and pigments could be an indicator of LIVER DISEASE
Urine Microscopy is done to detect
Epithelial Cells (Renal disease)
Casts (Renal disease)
Urine Culture gives us information about the type of INFECTION present and the SENSITIVITY tells us about the correct antibiotics, medications to be used for treatment.
Hence EVALUATION OF THE URINE SAMPLE is a very important “Window” into the health of the patient.
Dr. Madhav Sanzgiri
Dr. Janet Rodrigues
Clinical assistant in Urology
Manipal Hospitals Goa